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優質豐富的新聞媒體

一片癡心──看遍台灣野地花草

《Affluenza》是美國九〇年代的一部紀錄片,2001年被擴充成為一本書,這個英文字結合了富裕和流感,意指一種蔓延全球,沒有解藥的世紀傳染病,病因起於人們工作超時、壓力破表,慾望過多,無止盡的追求物質,過度消費,即使擁有豪宅名車與數不清的精品,內心還是感覺空了一塊,終日惶惶不安。這種病,台灣譯為「富流感」。

The topic of “affluenza” was the subject of a noted US documentary in the 1990s, and a book was later published about it in 2001. The word—a relatively recent coinage that combines the words “affluence” and “influenza”—refers to a contagious condition sweeping the globe that involves unreasonably long working hours, tremendous stress, endless material pursuits, overconsumption, emptiness, and anxiety.

「永遠都不夠」這種病,不只有錢人會得,窮人也會患。然而,「富流感」當真無藥可醫嗎?

其實解藥還是有的,解藥藏在大自然裡,縮小範圍來看,就是大自然的一草一木……

The feeling that one never has enough afflicts not just the rich. Poor people also fall victim. The antidote is to be found in nature. One need only focus in on the small things. A blade of grass or a flower petal will do the trick....

《富流感》(Affluenza: How Overconsumption is Killing Us and How to Fight Back)一書提供「富流感自我診斷檢測表」,其中一個問題問的是:「你有沒有能力指認出至少三種你家附近的本地野花?」

The book Affluenza: How Overconsumption is Killing Us and How to Fight Back provides an affluenza self-diagnosis test that asks: “Are you unable to identify more than three wildflowers that are native to your area?”

一片癡心──看遍台灣野地花草
(圖/Candy提供)

你身邊有哪些野花?寂寞的山上,曠遠的海邊,有什麼花正在綻放?

What wildflowers do you have around you? Up in the lonely mountains, or out on a deserted seacoast, what flowers will you find?

野花寓意人與大自然的聯繫,是進入與認識大自然最單純的入口,2013年1351期《商業周刊》就登出了一篇很不一樣的「編者的話」,出自總編輯郭奕伶,談的不是某一家企業的成敗興衰或經濟數字,而是一種龍膽科、名叫「新店當藥」的台灣特有種植物。

Wildflowers are a link between man and nature, and the simplest of all portals to an understanding of the untamed world around us.

Kuo Yi-ling, editor in chief at Business Weekly magazine, accompanies an aunt and uncle on an early autumn day in October to the trailhead at Mt. Shizitou in the Taipei suburb of Xindian to hunt for Swertia shintenensis, a flowering plant in the gentian family. Her uncle, once a C-suite executive at an electronics company, after retirement became an avid flower hunter along with his wife. Together, they now scour the mountains to observe and photograph the flora there.

根據該文,十月初秋,郭奕伶隨著姑姑和姑丈到新店獅仔頭山登山口處尋找新店當藥,這位姑丈曾經是電子公司總字輩的人物,退休後和妻子變成專業的追花人,登山健行,觀察野地的一草一木,並以相機記錄。

大自然的能量帶來了身心的療癒,「原來世界如此美麗!」退休姑丈亦驚異亦感嘆,驚異於野地花草之美,美到不可思議,花瓣如燙了大波浪捲的小木通、閃亮似藍寶石的琉求雞屎樹果實、長得像一根拐杖的野菰……;同時她也感嘆大多數人不曾為身邊的野花雜草俯下身來,細細觀察認真欣賞;更甚者,滋養野花雜草的田地和荒野正在一片片消失,不是長出建物,便是被施以除草劑。被施以除草劑的土地,土壤表層的植被會完全枯乾,也因為植被完全枯死,地表無法涵養水份,土壤呈現硬叩叩的狀態,換句話說,土地被處死了。

The power of nature can cure whatever may ail, be it body or soul. Kuo’s uncle exclaims: “Look how gorgeous nature can be!” He marvels at the curled petals of Clematis lasiandra, the sapphire-blue berries of Lasianthus fordii, and the walking-cane shape of the forest ghost flower (Aeginetia indica). But he sighs at how few people ever bother to stoop down for a closer look, and the fact that the land where wildflowers grow is increasingly gobbled up by building sites or smothered in herbicides. Wherever herbicides have been laid down, the topsoil goes dry, barren, and hard.

追花的翅膀

Candy Candy

但也有好消息。好消息是,願意俯下身來親近野花雜草的人,數量雖然難以估計,但確實在默默增加中,部落客Candy Candy就是其中之一,她有自己的部落格「追花的翅膀」。以異乎尋常的追花熱情,一片癡心,Candy Candy一年多來寫下近百篇上山下海的植物觀察誌。為了看到白花油點草,她連著三星期,走過四座山,遇見一堆蛇,終於在快要放棄的時候,「伊人」就在眼前;為了白色水晶蘭,她請假來到冬天氣溫只有攝氏5度的北橫,走了3個小時山路,最後與之在一處潮濕的杉樹闊葉林中相遇。為了國寶級的寄生植物菱形奴草,Candy Candy一個半月中跑了4次東眼山,每一次來回走10公里,從奴草冒出頭來開始觀察紀錄直至開花,「只要有一種植物讓我朝思暮想,廢寢忘食,就算跋山涉水,千辛萬苦我都甘之如飴。」這樣的追花精神,大約只有戀愛差可比擬。

It’s hard to say how many people are into wildflowers and other plants, but the number is silently growing. Among them is a blogger going by the handle of Candy Candy, who brings an unmatched passion to the flower hunt. In a period of just over a year, she has posted about a hundred articles describing her treks across the land. To get a look at the albino form of Tricyrtis formosana, she climbed four mountains over three consecutive weeks, ran across all sorts of snakes, and was on the verge of giving up before making the find. To track down the ghostly white Cheilotheca humilis, she took time off work and hiked for three hours in the 5℃ cold of the mountains around the Northern Cross-Island Highway, finally catching up with her quarry in a damp fir grove. To observe Mitrastemon kanehirai, a parasitic plant that has been designated as a national treasure, she made four trips to Mt. Dongyan over a month and a half, hiking ten kilometers each time. Over the four trips, she watched and recorded as the plant sprouted, grew, and flowered. “Once I get fixated on a plant, it’ll be on my mind day and night. I’ll gladly go anywhere and negotiate any obstacle to see it.” Apart from flower hunting, perhaps love is the only thing that can inspire such passion.

一片癡心──看遍台灣野地花草
(圖/Candy提供)

Candy Candy代表的這一群人,行跡真可說是「萬分可疑」,他們總是蹲在路邊,或者乾脆趴下來,在草叢裡撥撥弄弄,彷彿那裡面夾藏著一顆無價的寶石。

這一群人,春夏秋冬,他們數算花開和結果的日子,根據花開與結果的時間編排活動行程;當翻山越嶺終於看到某一種心心念念的花時,會激動到掉下眼淚,就像看到崇拜到瘋狂的偶像。

All year round, Candy Candy and others like her set their schedules by the life cycles of the flowers. When the object of their attention is set to bloom or bear fruit, they stir to action, and once they find what they’re looking for, they will often burst into tears, not unlike a star-struck fan upon happening across an entertainment idol on the street.

「看遍台灣野地花草」,這是一個正在台灣南北蔓延串連,組黨結派的新興族群,或可暫名為「追花族」。

Flower hunting is a new phenomenon that is spreading across Taiwan. For our purposes, let’s call the people who do this “flower chasers.”

國家公園、荒野保護協會和各地森林遊樂區多年來扮演培訓「追花族」的推手,訓練出一批又一批非專業出身的自然觀察志工,撒播守護自然的種子。

National parks, forest recreation areas, and the Society of Wilderness have been training flower chasers for many years, and the people they’ve trained are now spreading the seeds of concern for nature.

高雄前鎮高中退休的國文老師陳慧珠先到墾管處受訓,現在是杉林溪的生態解說志工;筆名「范持槧」的林金松原來從事電腦業,受到興趣的召喚加入荒野保護協會,如今已在社區大學帶領戶外觀察課程。曾任陽明山國家公園解說志工的庫老,辯識植物功夫高強,專門解答樹友花友的疑難雜症;臉書社團「台灣行道樹」、「鳥語花香」、「這是什麼花?」則糾集了數以萬計的會員,並定期辦自然觀察活動。

Chen Huizhu, a retired teacher of Chinese at Kaohsiung Municipal Cianjhen Senior High School, started out by attending training sessions at Kenting National Park Headquarters, and is now a volunteer guide at Shanlin Xi Forest Recreation Area. Lin Jinsong, who goes by the online handle of Cobra Sow and used to work in the electronics industry, joined the Society of Wilderness and now teaches a community college course where he takes students out to observe nature. “Old Mr. Ku,” a former volunteer guide at Yangmingan National Park, is extremely knowledgeable about plants, and can answer all sorts of questions concerning trees, flowers, and the like. Meanwhile, a number of Facebook groups and pages with a special focus on plant life have attracted tens of thousands of followers, and even organize periodic nature excursions.

探密花花世界

Exploring nature’s secrets

「追花族」中,有人看熱鬧,有人看門道;有人從看門道看到變成了達人,進一步成為植物書作者,在學術界和追花族之間搭起一座橋樑,例如黃麗錦和葉子老師。黃麗錦在不到4年的時間內出版了《野花999》、《野果遊樂園》和《台灣果實圖鑑》;葉子的《跟著節氣去拍花》則結合了賞花與攝影技巧,近期還將要出版一本《台灣花歲時記》。

Some flower chasers are just casually interested, but others take it quite seriously. Some in this latter group, in fact, develop into true experts, publish books, and act as a bridge between academia and enthusiasts. Take Huang Lijin and “Teacher Yezi,” for example. Huang Lijin published three books in less than four years, while Yezi combined his passions for flowers and photography in a 2013 book. Now he is soon to publish another.

一片癡心──看遍台灣野地花草
(圖/Candy提供)

「這裡頭藏著的授粉機關就像蹺蹺板……,」黃麗錦把手指頭輕輕伸進花冠筒。

Huang pokes a finger inside a flower’s corolla tube and comments: “The pollination mechanism inside this flower is just like a teeter-totter....”

「花是生殖器官,為了傳播花粉以繁衍後代,演化出千奇百怪的花型及授粉機制,以黃花鼠尾草來說,當昆蟲鑽入花冠筒吸食花蜜食時,它會壓到下唇瓣的不可孕雄蕊,上唇瓣的可孕雄蕊就會降下來,把花粉黏附在昆蟲身上,就這樣把傳播後代的任務託付給了昆蟲。」

“Flowers are reproductive organs. To spread pollen and procreate, they’ve evolved all sorts of weird shapes and pollination mechanisms. Salvia nipponica var. formosana is an interesting case in point. When an insect gets into the corolla tube to drink the nectar, it bumps up against the infertile stamens on the lower lip of the corolla. This triggers the fertile stamens on the upper lip to swing down and drop pollen on the insect. The flower then relies on the insect to go out and spread the pollen, thus achieving reproduction.”

人會為了愛情掩藏自我、自我改造,而花呢,在生存競爭的戰場,也會為了迎合某一種昆蟲的喜好而改變,這叫做「特化」。

只是蹲在一朵黃花鼠尾草面前,黃麗錦就可以講上半個鐘頭,她是荒野保護協會的植物解說老師,與朋友合組「瓦拉米環境探索工作室」,承接企業和學校生態探索、環境觀察和體驗學習課程,有時候也有園藝或森林系學生來參與活動。陽明山二子坪步道是一條最平易近人的步道,也是觀察野地花草的聖地,秋天會開出稀有的毛藥花。有一次黃麗錦帶領植物班學員從步道口走到大屯山自然公園,單程1.8公里,正常往返80分鐘,但才短短一百公尺,這一群追花人可以走上半天,一邊找花看花,一邊低頭認真作筆記。

Crouched before a Salvia nipponica blossom, Huang can go on talking for a half hour. A plant guide for the Society of Wilderness, she and some friends jointly established WEE, a partnership that hires itself out to schools and companies to teach nature exploration courses. From time to time, university students majoring in horticulture or forestry take part in the activities.

家花哪有野花香?

Wild is better

自然,就像是另一個世界的入口,村上春樹小說的「這邊」與「那邊」,「我們的自然意識正在慢慢覺醒,」黃麗錦認為。

Nature is like a window upon a different world—the “here” and “there” of which Haruki Murakami has spoken. Says Huang: “Our awareness of nature is slowly awakening.”

黃麗錦學的是中文,但為了寫野花野果,除了系統的整理,甚至必須到學院裡找論文閱讀。低調不受訪,「將一部分的自己投入,堆疊在自然裡,尋回那個原來的自我」的葉子,讀的也是一個與植物毫不相關的科系,沒有學過植物的基礎分類學,因為愛戀台灣小島豐富的生態,進而精進攝影技術以便更加細膩的呈現生物的精緻構造與其奇異的生長歷程,他所撰寫的百萬人氣部落格「一個人與花草的生活」,除了植物攝影,還有知性與感性兼具的文字,字字句句皆藏著格主努力精進的痕跡,做到了學術書籍所做不到的事。

A former Chinese major in university, Huang has taken systematically to the task of writing about the world of flowers, and must even delve into academic literature. And there is Yezi, a low-profile type who refuses interviews but has said of himself: “I pour parts of myself into the undertaking, and stack the pieces up in nature to find the original me.” He too majored in something totally unrelated to plants. Unfamiliar with the basic taxonomic scheme used by botanists, he was nevertheless spurred by a love for Taiwan’s ecological richness to build up formidable photography skills that now enable him to put the living world clearly on display. His blog, which has attracted over a million hits, features a huge collection of plant photos, plus writings pulsating with wit and feeling. This is something that academic literature cannot do.

但要說賞野花的開路先鋒,1997年張碧員、張蕙芬合著的《台灣野花365天》,非它莫屬,PayEasy總經理林坤正就是買了這本書之後帶著它走到荒郊野山,開始學習辨認植物,進而成立「台灣行道樹」臉書社團。《台灣野花圖鑑》上下兩冊更是追花族人手一冊的入門書,從蝴蝶、昆蟲到野花,張永仁堪稱最專業的民間博物學者。

But one would be remiss to let two great pioneers, Zhang Biyuan and Zhang Huifen, go unmentioned. The field guide to the wildflowers of Taiwan that they published in 1997 is something of a “flower chaser’s bible.” After purchasing this book, Bill Lin, president of the PayEasy shopping website, started carrying it along on trips into the hills. He learned to identify plants, and eventually founded a popular Facebook group for plant aficionados. And another publication that few flower chasers go without is a two-volume illustrated guide to the wildflowers of Taiwan by Zhang Yongren, whom many consider the most learned among the nation’s many amateur flower enthusiasts.

野花何以令人著迷?用葉子的說法,野地裡的花有一種「野性之美」,居家附近、道路旁、野溪、郊區、深山野地,這些野花沒有家花來得嬌豔,或者貴氣,但卻有一種感動人的力量,就像一群放蕩不羈的小孩,不受任何拘束,任憑風吹、日曬、雨淋……,悠然自得,只要去接近、觀察、探索,每一朵野花後面都有一個故事可以訴說,讓不同的人留下了一段又一段美麗的記憶。

So what is so enchanting about wildflowers? In the opinion of Yezi, there is an untamed beauty to the flowers one encounters in the wild, and a power that moves the viewer. Like a troupe of children reveling in unrestrained freedom, they are unfazed, no matter how the wind may blow, the sun sear, and the rain soak. If you get up close, and take a long hard look, you will find that each petal has a tale to tell.

不過追花族未必同意葉子的看法,在Candy Candy眼裡,野花比家花美上百倍千倍;相對於溫室的花朵,黃麗錦對野花堅韌的生命力和生存的智慧,則是無限欽服。但尋訪野花,很多時候是徒勞無功的,有時候更是會面對讓人錯愕的結局,例如,經常在臉書社團發表植物攝影的紀易逸有一次在野外拍到一整面山壁盛開的台灣白及蘭,隔一個星期再去,竟然已經被當作雜草除掉了。

For Candy Candy, wildflowers are incomparably more beautiful than the cultivated variety. Huang, too, is underwhelmed by greenhouse beauties, but feels a deep respect for the hardiness of wildflowers. However, the search for a particular wildflower often brings frustration. Ji Yiyi, a nature photographer who frequently posts photos to Facebook groups, once photographed a big patch of Formosan bletilla orchids (Bletilla formosana) blooming in the hills, then went back a week later only to find that someone had removed every last one.

一片癡心──看遍台灣野地花草
(圖/Candy提供)

野地「明星」

That “star quality”

追花追到一定程度,很自然而然的,會渴望見到「明星級」的野花以及罕見的稀有種。

新店當藥正是野花中的明星,獅仔頭山登山口設有立牌,是最容易看到新店當藥的地方。台灣有四種當藥,唯一生長在低海拔山區的也就是日據時期植物學者早田文藏博士在新店發現的新店當藥,它開出的花擁有深紫色的花瓣和奇異的凹陷密槽所形成的蜜標,蜜標上爬滿了螞蟻,每到秋季開花時節,就吸引追花族前來朝聖。但新店當藥不只在新店,更厲害的追花族會避開族群離離落落的獅仔頭山,轉而到烏來山前峰的陡峭山壁或桃園復興鄉東眼山「參見」。

Many who get sufficiently hooked on flower chasing will eventually start hankering for glimpses of wildflowers that are uncommonly beautiful or rare.

Swertia shintenensis is an especially prized flower. A board has been erected at the trailhead of Mt. Shizitou to inform visitors that this is the best area in Taiwan to search for S. shintenensis. Taiwan has four flowers in the genus Swertia, of which S. shintenensis is the only one that grows in the mountains at low elevations. First discovered in Xindian during the Japanese colonial period by the botanist Bunzo Hayata, S. shintenensis features deep purple petals and unusual nectar guides composed of sunken grooves. Flower chasers arrive in droves every autumn as S. shintenensis is blooming to see the nectar guides covered with crawling ants. However, the range of S. shintenensis is not limited to Xindian; many of the more accomplished flower chasers avoid the crowds at Mt. Shizitou and head instead to the rugged Front Peak of Mt. Wulai, or to Mt. Dongyan in Taoyuan.

一片癡心──看遍台灣野地花草
(圖/Candy提供)

而和新店當藥一樣被追逐的,還有平溪山區的艷紅鹿子百合,二子坪的毛藥、東北角海岸的金花石蒜、合歡山的紅毛杜鵑、小奇萊步道的水晶蘭、思源埡口的蔓烏頭……,這些也只能算是普遍級,高階的追花族,口味越來越重,還會更進一步攀山越野去尋找野生的台灣金線蓮、台灣喜普鞋蘭等等稀有瀕危植物。它們通常不會長在尋常的登山路線,其「秘密基地」只能在少數人中流傳,為免於重蹈台灣一葉蘭大量遭採摘致全軍覆沒的命運,「保密」確實有其必要;更有最稀有中最稀有的黃花喜普鞋蘭,全台灣據傳目前只有三個發現地點,已被太魯閣國家公園管理處列為最高機密。

Other flowers that rival the esteem commanded by S. shintenensis include Lilium speciosum var. gloriosoides in the mountains near Pingxi, Bostrychanthera deflexa at Erziping, the golden spider lily (Lycoris aurea) of the northeast seacoast, the red-hairy azalea (Rhododendron rubropilosum) of Mt. Hehuan, Cheilotheca humilis from the Little Qilai Trail, and scandent monkshood (Aconitum fukutomei var. formosanum) from the Siyuan Pass. But among the cognoscenti, even this list isn’t so terribly special. Those who really know their stuff are more demanding; they will go on monster treks to find rare and endangered wild plants like the jewel orchid species Anoectochilus formosanus or the Formosan lady’s slipper (Cypripedium formosanum). These rarities seldom grow in accessible places like hiking trails. In fact, their locations are secrets that experts guard tightly to make sure hordes won’t come and poach until there are no flowers left. Such secrecy is certainly necessary. The rarest of rarities—Cypripedium segawai—is found in only three spots in Taiwan, and the locations have been declared top-secret information by the Taroko National Park Headquarters.

從靜默、彎身開始

Zooming in close

黃麗錦並不熱衷追逐稀有種,也沒有特別鍾情於某一種花,「包括落地生根的外來種,只要是野花,我都喜歡」。她認為,認識植物,和植物做朋友,應該從身邊校園、公園、植物園的花草觀察開始,因為就在身邊,一年四季,可以進入植物的生命循環,自然的演替,不只看花開的美麗,秋天的果實與冬天的殘葉枯枝,亦各有姿態,各有其美,但要真正讀懂自然間的宇宙,宇宙的奧密,還要「懂得靜默與彎身」。

Huang, however, isn’t into rarity for its own sake. In her opinion, a person should get to know plants by observing the ones that grow in their immediate environment. Precisely because they are nearby, you can get to know their whole life cycle, observing not just the beautiful blooms, but also the fruits of autumn and the withered leaves of winter. There is beauty at each stage. If you want to understand nature and its secrets, you have to know how to sit pat and observe closely.

一片癡心──看遍台灣野地花草
(圖/Candy提供)

美好的事物通常和物質無關,靜默與彎身,這需要教育,荒野保護協會認養台北富陽自然生態公園之初,公園的泥土地被民眾鋪上地毯,然後在地毯上打羽毛球;地毯移除之後,那些埋伏在土壤底下的種子,紛紛發芽滋長,而台北植物園也已經知道,在清明節前後,一定要避開在有綬草生長的區域除草。

即使是方寸之地也能自成一生態系統,意外的美麗就在身邊,療癒身心的藥石也就在身邊,只要我們懂得靜默與彎身。

Sitting pat and observing closely are acquired skills. When the Society of Wilderness first adopted Fuyang Eco Park in Taipei, nearby residents had been playing badminton on carpeting that they had laid down there. After volunteers removed the carpeting, seeds under the soil soon sprouted. Though tiny, the patch of land managed to support an entire ecosystem. As it turns out, beauty with the power to heal the body and soul is all around us, close at hand if you’re only willing to take an attentive look at your surroundings.

看更多精彩內容詳見本期的臺灣光華雜誌

  • 臺灣光華雜誌 2015-01-26
關鍵字: 野花植物台灣自然觀察
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