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原汁原味 西螺製造

原汁原味 西螺製造
西螺醬油遠近馳名,不到5萬人的小鎮上,沿街都可看到醬油間。 The reputation of Xiluo soy sauce has spread far and wide, and the streets of this small town of just 50,000 are practically packed with soy sauce businesses.

「西螺醬油」名聲,無人不知無人不曉。小小的西螺鎮,不僅孕育出百年醬油老字號,還留下了最古樸的手工熬煮技法。

原汁原味 西螺製造
西螺醬油遠近馳名,不到5萬人的小鎮上,沿街都可看到醬油間。 The reputation of Xiluo soy sauce has spread far and wide, and the streets of this small town of just 50,000 are practically packed with soy sauce businesses.

如今,不光以時間釀造的醬油飄出西螺的在地味,還有農民投入黑豆復種計畫,讓醬油從原料到釀造,全來自西螺。

There is barely a person in Taiwan who has never heard of Xiluo soy sauce. Though small, Yun¬lin’s Xi-luo Township has not only produced a century-long name in soy sauce, but also helped preserve the ancient techniques by which the sauce has historically been made.

Today, a uniquely local flavor has fermented in Xi¬luo, and local farmers have gotten in on the act, working to revive cultivation of black soybeans as well, so that from seed to sauce it’s all produced in Xiluo.

位於彰化、雲林縣市交界,橫跨濁水溪、長達一千九百多公尺,鮮紅色的西螺大橋在河岸旁醒目鮮明。1953年,台灣攜手美、日工程隊、以華倫式桁架橋設計的西螺大橋落成後,成為僅次於舊金山大橋的世界第二大橋。

幾年前,西螺大橋面臨廢棄,經過螺陽文教基金會和地方團體的積極奔走,才保留下來,成為西螺的知名地標。而在西螺,另一個與西螺大橋名氣相當的名字,則是早已深入家家戶戶的民生用品:醬油。

Spanning the Zhuo¬shui River between Yun¬lin and Chang¬hua Counties is the brilliant-red Xi¬luo Bridge. Started under Japanese rule and completed with American funding, at the time of its opening in 1953 this 1.9-kilo¬meter-long Warren truss bridge was the world’s second-longest bridge, ranking only behind San Fran¬cisco’s Golden Gate Bridge.

When the Xiluo Bridge was threatened with demolition several years ago, local groups including the Lou¬young Cultural & Education Foundation rushed to its defense, wanting it preserved as a landmark. But just as famous as the bridge is another product of Xi¬luo, something families across Taiwan use virtually every day: soy sauce.

北上參展,打響西螺名號

原汁原味 西螺製造
丸莊醬油董事長莊英堯(左)、總經理莊英志(右)攜手延續百年老字號品牌,將西螺醬油文化發揚光大。 Wuan Chuang Soy Sauce chairman Zhuang Yingyao (left) and general manager Zhuang Yingzhi (right) are carrying on the traditions of this century-old brand, keeping the fame of Xiluo soy sauce shining bright.

將西螺和醬油扣連在一塊的,正是起家於西螺的百年老字號「丸莊醬油」第二代經營者莊昭典。

1909年,莊昭典的父親莊清臨做的醬油已在西螺地區小有名氣。1930年代二戰即將爆發,為了戰前預備,日本政府開始在殖民地的台灣實施民生物資統收管制,醬油也是其中一項。因此,莊昭典即和日本政府合資經營虎尾醬油株式會社,由他持股51%。

名義上,莊昭典雖握有多數股權,但過半股份卻是由他和二、三位小股東共同持有,公司仍由日方主導。二戰後,日本戰敗撤離台灣,莊昭典接手經營虎尾醬油株式會社,並更名為「莊益增」。

儘管在當時,丸莊已是西螺一方之霸,但莊昭典並不滿足。1960年代民生輕工業在政府鼓勵下,快速蓬勃發展,為了拓展市場,莊昭典帶著丸莊醬油來到台北,參加全台灣第一場的商展。

原汁原味 西螺製造
丸莊醬油董事長莊英堯(左)、總經理莊英志(右)攜手延續百年老字號品牌,將西螺醬油文化發揚光大。 Wuan Chuang Soy Sauce chairman Zhuang Yingyao (left) and general manager Zhuang Yingzhi (right) are carrying on the traditions of this century-old brand, keeping the fame of Xiluo soy sauce shining bright.

而真正擦亮西螺醬油的時候,則要等到1951年在台中舉辦的一場展會。當時,莊昭典為了打響自家品牌,首度喊出「西螺名產‧丸莊醬油」的口號。不料,此句文案威力驚人,深入大眾人心。許多同業紛紛效尤,西螺醬油的名聲傳遍全台灣。

不過此前西螺醬油已是民眾熟悉的好味道。丸莊醬油董事長莊英堯表示,在高速公路、縱貫線尚未開通前,跨越濁水溪連結的西螺大橋是民眾南來北往必經的交通要道。鄰近的西螺鎮,成了旅人停歇補給的中繼站。再啟程,手裡習慣帶上一瓶醬油作為伴手禮,贈送親朋好友,西螺醬油的名聲因而遠播。

螺陽文教基金會董事長何美慧表示,西螺緊鄰濁水溪,水源豐沛,長年和煦氣候提供了醬油發酵最需要的穩定環境。因此,除了大廠牌,家家戶戶都有自家釀造的獨門口味。

除了得天獨厚的地理環境,醬油成為西螺一支獨秀的在地產業,另方面也是源自當地謀生不易的現實。莊英堯解釋,1960、1970年代台灣經濟起飛,家家戶戶「家庭即工廠」,但西螺是農業小鎮,居民除了務農、從事公職,鎮上工作機會不多,鄉間林立的醬油間是居民謀生的少數去處。

因此,面積不到50平方公里、僅有5萬人的西螺鎮上,就有十多家的醬油廠商,極盛時期,數量更是高達四十多家。

西螺醬油的開枝散葉,許多都和丸莊不無關係。今年是丸莊醬油成立的第107年,扛下重責的是第三代的莊英堯和莊英志。

原汁原味 西螺製造
御鼎興醬油傳承手工窯燒的古法,釀製醬油新風味。 Yu-Ding-Shing Soy Sauce has brought new life to traditional soy sauce production methods.

莊英堯主管台北總公司、弟弟莊英志則負責掌管西螺廠務和觀光工廠。平日一南一北分掌丸莊,兩人因為受訪難得聚首。回到已改裝為觀光工廠的三代老店鋪,兄弟倆兒時成長的回憶歷歷在目。

行經擺滿醬缸的庭前,「到這裡是我的書房,」再往前兩步,「這裡是臥房。」莊英堯話剛落下,「不不不,書房是在這兒。」莊英志搶著追溯記憶裡的老地方。兩人從小在醬油間打滾長大,醬缸、醬油是最熟悉的事。

原汁原味 西螺製造
御鼎興醬油傳承手工窯燒的古法,釀製醬油新風味。 Yu-Ding-Shing Soy Sauce has brought new life to traditional soy sauce production methods.

莊英堯高中時,正值父親衝刺事業階段,還在讀書的他也開始跟著幫忙。在莊英堯眼中,父親極具商業頭腦。當年北上參展,即是莊昭典不滿現有市場的大膽決定;比如市面上醬油常見440cc容量的透明瓶身規格,也是莊昭典搶先於同業的創舉。

莊英堯表示,當年物資缺乏,醬油業者多半回收舊瓶進行填裝,台語諺語「黑瓶子裝醬油(台語)」由此而來。當時,正為提升醬油質感找尋新包裝而苦惱的莊昭典,聽聞一家玻璃填裝廠因為客戶取消訂單,大批貨物無處可去。於是他靈機一動,將原本用來填裝汽水的透明玻璃瓶拿來裝醬油,使得瓶中醬色看來特別晶亮,廣受消費者好評,其他同業眼見如此,也開始相繼仿傚。

原汁原味 西螺製造
御鼎興醬油傳承手工窯燒的古法,釀製醬油新風味。 Yu-Ding-Shing Soy Sauce has brought new life to traditional soy sauce production methods.

現代企業強調的品牌標誌,莊昭典在1930年代即頗具先見找來書法家,寫下「莊」字再畫上一個圓,作為企業識別,並沿用至今。

Building a name

原汁原味 西螺製造
御鼎興醬油傳承手工窯燒的古法,釀製醬油新風味。 Yu-Ding-Shing Soy Sauce has brought new life to traditional soy sauce production methods.

What really made the connection between Xi¬luo and soy sauce in the public mind was the century-old brand that calls the township home, Wuan ¬Chuang Soy Sauce, and its second-generation boss ¬Zhuang Zhao¬dian.

By 1909, ¬Zhuang’s father ¬Zhuang Qing¬lin’s soy sauce had already given Xi¬luo somewhat of a name. In the 1930s, on the cusp of World War II, the Japanese government began placing restrictions on everyday items in its colony, Taiwan, in preparation for war. Soy sauce was among the items on that list. And so the elder ¬Zhuang went in on a joint venture with the Japanese government, named To¬rao ¬Shoyu Ka¬bu¬shiki Kai¬sha (Tiger’s Tail Soy Sauce Co., Ltd.), with ¬Zhuang having a 51% stake. After WWII and the subsequent departure from Taiwan of the defeated Japanese, ¬Zhuang took full control of the company, renaming it ¬Zhuang Yi Zeng.

However, despite dominating the market in Xi¬luo, ¬Zhuang Zhao¬dian was still unsatisfied. In the 1960s, with government encouragement, light industry began to take off across Taiwan. Seeing an opportunity, ¬Zhuang took his sauce to Taiwan’s first national trade fair, having previously attended a smaller fair in 1951 at which he debuted the company’s slogan, “Local Soy Sauce Made in Xi¬luo.” This slogan proved to be surprisingly effective, and as competitors sprang up, Xi¬luo soy sauce began to gain a reputation across Taiwan.

Louise He, chairwoman of the Lou¬young Cultural & Education Foundation, says that thanks to Xi¬luo’s proximity to the Zhuo¬shui River, it enjoys plentiful irrigation, while the warm climate provides a stable environment for fermenting the soy sauce. This is why big companies and small household operations alike set up shop there.

It isn’t just the environment that has made soy sauce such a big local industry. As the chairman of Wuan ¬Chuang Soy Sauce, ¬Zhuang Ying¬yao, explains, when Taiwan’s economy was taking off in the 1960s and 1970s, Xi¬luo was still primarily an agricultural town with few ¬opportunities for work outside of farming or government, and soy sauce provided one of the few ways to make good money.

As a result, this small town of barely 50 square kilometers and 50,000 people became home to more than 40 soy sauce factories at its peak, and still more than a dozen today.

Of the many factories that sprang up, several have a connection to Wuan ¬Chuang, which this year is celebrating its 107th anniversary and is now under the leadership of the third generation of ¬Zhuangs, ¬Zhuang Ying¬yao and ¬Zhuang Ying¬zhi.

Chairman ¬Zhuang Ying¬yao runs the Tai¬pei head office, while his younger brother ¬Zhuang Ying¬zhi is responsible for the factories, including the Xi¬luo tourist factory. With one in charge up north and one down south, it’s a rare thing to be able to talk to the two together. Back in the tourist factory, the company’s original base, the brothers recall their childhoods spent there, growing up around the familiar accoutrements of soy sauce production.

When the elder of the two was in senior high, their father’s career was just taking off, and so despite still being in school, ¬Zhuang Ying¬yao started getting involved. In his eyes, their father was a business genius. Heading to Tai¬pei for trade shows was a brave move by ¬Zhuang Zhao¬dian, who wasn’t content to settle for the market as it stood. The standard 440-milliliter clear glass bottles were also pioneered by ¬Zhuang, and while nowadays practically every company is concerned with brand building, in the 1930s ¬Zhuang had already commissioned a calligrapher to create a unique identity, one still in use today.

手工窯燒,記憶裡的醬香古早味

原汁原味 西螺製造
黑豆製麴階段決定了醬油的風味,御鼎興老闆謝御讀仔細查看黑豆的發酵狀態,確保品質。 The fermentation of the black beans determines the flavor of the resulting soy sauce. Yu-Ding-Shing boss Xie Yudu pays close attention to how their beans are going, ensuring a quality product.

丸莊醬油,飄香百年,而近些年竄起的「御鼎興」則靠著手工窯燒的技法,讓西螺醬油留下了古早味。

今年50歲的謝裕讀,是傳承家中醬油事業的第二代。早年西螺醬油間林立,謝裕讀的父親在醬油廠裡,學會釀造手藝。1980年父親過世後,謝裕讀接下醬油生意。嫁入謝家才開始學做醬油的太太邱碧惠回憶,當時謝裕讀年紀不到30歲,小兒子也還在腹中。「一切只得靠自己!」

年輕時還有父親在旁指點幫忙,一肩扛起醬油事業後,謝裕讀才知道「獨自作業根本不一樣」。尤其釀造醬油,工序繁複,必須歷經蒸煮、發酵、洗麴、熬煮等多道步驟,稍不注意,就會失敗。

原汁原味 西螺製造
御鼎興醬油熬煮後濃香、甘醇,古早風味也勾起 許多四、五年級消費者的往日回憶。 The thick fragrance and old-fashioned flavor of Yu-Ding-Shing’s soy sauces really bring back memories for many older Taiwanese consumers.

謝裕讀幾次就在發酵製麴的過程中吃了苦頭。他說,黑豆灑下麴種後,接下來得經過72小時的發酵。此階段,溫度尤其關鍵。有回發酵後該呈現黃芥末色的黑豆,就因發酵過度,成了黏稠狀,最後只能整批報廢做為肥料。

為了掌控溫度,御鼎興專為黑豆發酵的製麴室,外頭設有監控器控制溫度,並隨著季節變化,適時增溫、降溫。

蒸煮、冷卻到製麴的前半段工序決定了醬油50%的風味,而另外50%,則取決落缸後長達半年至一年的釀造期。謝裕讀解釋,黑豆發酵洗去菌絲後,得靜置二、三小時恢復活性,而後依據「乾式」、「半水」、「水壺」不同釀製方法,混入比例不一的粗鹽,再放入甕缸釀造。為了確保品質,謝裕讀每月都要巡視一回,直到一年後,開缸取出豆汁,再經過二次手工柴火熬煮,方能製成醬油。

比起鍋爐加溫的醬油,御鼎興以柴火慢慢熬煮三、四小時的醬油,有一絲溫潤的滋味。許多四、五年級生,就為了記憶中的古早味,特地找上門。此前,一位台北企業家遍尋多處後,終於在御鼎興找到了懷念的老味道而感動不已。

不過,留住古早味並不簡單。接下醬油事業後,費時費工的工序,從未讓謝裕讀放棄手工熬煮的堅持,控制火候的爐灶,也是謝裕讀特地找來師傅打造的。

「不是隨隨便便找來水泥、磚頭蓋一蓋,打造爐灶得考慮對流,不是任何師傅都懂得做灶的技藝。」爐口寬度、傾斜角度,以及煙囪位置,說來全是學問。然而隨著時代進步,還留著傳統灶間的人家不多,做灶師傅已經難以找到。

御鼎興獨到的古早釀造方式,近年透過媒體報導,聲名大噪,不僅作家劉克襄、王浩一到訪拍攝節目,日本NHK節目「亞洲食紀行」遠道來台拍攝。此前由於規模小,謝裕讀還得兼營醬料批發生意。如今,古樸的釀造技法獲得消費者青睞,謝裕讀決定將重心轉回醬油,以時間釀造出甘甜的好滋味。

A familiar flavor

While Wuan Chuang has the history, a more recent arrival, Yu-Ding-¬Shing, has made a name with its old-fashioned flavor, cooked over a wood fire.

Fifty-year-old Xie Yudu is the second generation of his family to run Yu-Ding-¬Shing. When factories were popping up all around Xi¬luo, Xie’s father began studying the traditional methods of soy sauce production. When he passed away in 1980, Xie Yudu stepped up.

When he was younger, Xie would lend a hand under his father’s instruction, but it was only after taking on the leadership role that he discovered how difficult running a business could be. Producing soy sauce in particular is a complicated process, requiring steaming, fermentation, washing, cooking, and more. A moment’s inattention can result in failure.

The first half of the production process decides half the flavor of the resulting sauce, while the other half comes from the length of time it is fermented, from six months to a year. Xie explains that once the fermenting black beans are washed, they need to sit for two or three hours before they become active again, and from there they are put through one of the three brewing processes—dry, half-wet, or wet vat—with differing levels of salt mixed in before being set to brew. To ensure the quality of the final product, each month Xie checks up on the process, and then at the end of the year, the sauce is cooked over a wood fire again, putting the finishing touch on it.

Yu-Ding-¬Shing’s traditional process has attracted quite some attention in the media in recent years, with writers Liu Ka-¬shiang and Wang Hao-yi visiting for a television program, and even Japan’s NHK making the trip for a Taiwan episode of their program Travels in World Cuisine. With all this attention, Xie had to start a retail operation in addition to the originally small-scale production operation. Now their traditional methods have become a favorite among consumers, but Xie’s focus remains on the sauce, with its time-tested flavor.

黑豆復耕運動,找回醬油的源頭

原汁原味 西螺製造
積極推動黑豆復種計畫的蔡財興,以先進的APP管理契作黑豆田,將地方產物和釀醬文化結合,讓西螺的醬油文化向下扎根。 Cai Caixing has actively promoted the revival of black bean farming in Xiluo and uses an advanced app to manage his fields. His efforts to combine local production and soy sauce culture have helped further deepen the roots of soy sauce production and culture in Xiluo.

以時間釀造的西螺醬油,香醇甘甜,更有人向下扎根,推動黑豆復耕計畫,讓醬油原汁原味全產自西螺。

每逢周末,台北花博假日廣場前聚集全台各地的農會、農民,擺攤展售辛苦了半年、一季的農產作物。

參與四、五年的蔡財興,和退伍不久的兒子北上擺攤。小小的攤位上擺的全是自家的產品,黑豆、黑豆茶、黑豆醋……。今年52歲的蔡財興5年前才半路出家成為農夫,此前他是灑水系統設備商、也曾從事改裝汽車、汽車精品業。蔡財興從小在西螺生長、工作大半輩子,最愛吃醬油。某天,透過一篇報導他才得知,許多用來釀製醬油的黑豆,絕大多數並非產自台灣。於是,蔡財興決定中途改行,投入黑豆的栽作,要讓西螺不只是醬油的故鄉,還是黑豆的故鄉。

蔡財興將自己人生意外轉彎,投入復興本土黑豆的心境轉折化為一首台語詩:「西螺醬油通人知,名聲透進各府內,黑豆以前大陸栽,現今自耕自種要自己來」高掛在店裡。

原汁原味 西螺製造
積極推動黑豆復種計畫的蔡財興,以先進的APP管理契作黑豆田,將地方產物和釀醬文化結合,讓西螺的醬油文化向下扎根。 Cai Caixing has actively promoted the revival of black bean farming in Xiluo and uses an advanced app to manage his fields. His efforts to combine local production and soy sauce culture have helped further deepen the roots of soy sauce production and culture in Xiluo.

現在,蔡財興自耕和農民契作的黑豆耕地面積達70公頃,回想5年前初投入栽作時,地方滿是觀望的人。

過往種植黑豆費時費工,產值低,加上政府休耕政策補助,許多農民寧可休耕領取補貼,也不願投入耕作。為了吸引農民釋放土地轉作黑豆,蔡財興向農民承租耕地不只加碼提高租金,同時聘雇他們除草、幫忙給予零星補貼,將原本興趣缺缺的老農們一起拉來。

不光向農民祭出利多,毫無農耕背景的蔡財興更向老農民、台南農改場求教,鑽研出一套獨門的栽作方式。一般黑豆耕作會選在第二、三天灌溉,蔡財興反其道而行,將第一次澆水期延至第8天。

蔡財興解釋,播種後,先不灌溉,表面土壤乾燥,黑豆為了生存,會向表層下的土壤找尋水份,使得主根不斷向下延伸,擁有強勁的抓地力,足以抵擋颱風和東北季風。一澆水,綿密的根系也能快速吸收水分,「別人只有一根吸管在吸水,我們的黑豆像是有一百根吸管。」蔡財興說。

利用植物生長特性的灌溉方式,同樣也用在黑豆的開花和結莢期,因此蔡財興種出的本土黑豆「台南5號」特別飽滿,平均一分地能收成280~300公斤;而其他人必須要30~35天才能收成的黑豆,在蔡財興手裡足足少了近一個星期。

蔡財興獨門祕技,還得有「地利」的幫助。西螺距離北迴歸線60公里的位置,使得當地天氣不若南部炎熱,卻擁有充足日光照射;入冬後,強勁的東北季風吹至此處,也變得微弱,緊鄰濁水溪的耕地,也擁有豐沛水源,「這裡正是水頭風尾(台語)!」。

種出的本土黑豆,除了加工成黑豆茶、黑豆醋等產品,蔡財興也和西螺大同、華泰、陳源和醬油品牌合作,讓醬油從黑豆到產品,全是原汁原味的「西螺製造」。「將地方產物和釀醬文化結合,路才會走得長遠。」頭髮花白的蔡財興堅信地說。

原汁原味 西螺製造
飽滿、渾黑的本土黑豆「台南五號」, 釀製出的醬油,色香味獨特誘人。 Dark, rich local “Tainan No. 5” black beans produce a soy sauce with a distinctive and enticing color and flavor.

100% local

With the roots of the soy sauce industry going deep in the Xi¬luo community, some locals have begun taking it to another level, promoting a revival of black bean farming in the area to ensure the sauce produced is truly 100% local.

Every weekend, the Flora Expo Park in Tai¬pei is host to a national farmers’ market, with farmers and farmers’ associations from around the island setting up shop to sell the products of months of hard work.

Cai Cai¬xing has taken part in this market for four or five years. At the small stall he staffs alongside his son, who just finished his military service, they sell a range of homemade products, including black beans, black bean tea, and black bean vinegars. Five years ago, at the age of 47, Cai made the decision to go into farming, having previously worked in irrigation equipment, and before that in selling automotive products and customising cars. Having lived most of his life in Xi¬luo, soy sauce had long been a favorite of his, and after seeing a news report, he learned that most of the black beans used in Taiwan’s soy sauce were in fact not even from Taiwan. It was then that he set his heart on growing black beans and helping Xi¬luo become not only a soy sauce town, but also a black bean one.

Today, Cai and other farmers together farm some 70 hectares of black beans, a far cry from five years prior, when most of the township was content to observe from the sidelines.

In the past, black beans were time and labor intensive and produced little income, and with government subsidies available for leaving fields fallow, many farmers decided they’d rather take the subsidies. To get more locals on board with his plan, Cai not only offered to pay a higher rent for the land, but also hired them to handle weeding and help out, drawing them into an area they previously had little interest in.

As well as helping create profits for those farmers, Cai himself benefited from their expertise. With no background in farming, he sought their advice and that of the Tai¬nan District Agricultural Research and Extension Station to develop a unique farming approach. Generally black beans are watered two or three days after sowing, but Cai chose to draw this out to eight days.

After the beans are sown, Cai explains, the soil is dry, and so to survive the plants reach down into the earth for water. The further down their roots reach, the stronger the grip they have on the earth, making them more resistant to typhoons and northeasterly monsoon winds. Then, when irrigated, the dense root system eagerly sucks up the water; “This way, it’s like our black beans are drinking with a hundred straws instead of just one,” says Cai.

Cai’s special approach to irrigation is also used when the beans begin to flower and their pods mature, resulting in particularly rich harvests of his Tai¬nan No. 5 variety of bean, which yields some 2800‡3000 kilograms of beans per hectare. On top of that, where others’ crops need 30‡35 days to be ready for harvest, Cai’s ripen close to a week sooner.

Cai’s special approach is helped along by the local geo¬graphy. Xi¬luo sits some 60 km north of the Tropic of Cancer, so the weather is less oppressively hot than further south, but still sunny, while the powerful winter northeasterlies are much weaker. Meanwhile, the neighboring Zhuo¬shui River provides an abundance of water. Overall, Xi¬luo quite literally has excellent fengshui.

In addition to processing these local beans into black bean teas and vinegars, Cai also works with several Xi¬luo soy sauce brands to facilitate the creation of 100% Xi¬luo sauces. “Only with this kind of combination of local product and local culture can we really be sure there’s a long road ahead for the industry,” says the greying Cai confidently.

看更多精彩內容詳見本期的臺灣光華雜誌

  • 臺灣光華雜誌 2016-10-26
關鍵字: 醬油西螺
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