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習武射箭:打造小葉問及神射手

禮、樂、射、御、書、數,是中國古代儒生的必修技藝,其中射、御兩項,就是現代的體育課。

習武射箭:打造小葉問及神射手

相較於西方著重強身健體、均衡發展的體育精神,射箭、習武等東方的傳統運動,更強調內外兼修的文武雙全與專心致志的品格淬礪。

Where the Western sporting tradition emphasizes physical strength and quantifiable development, the martial arts of the East place as much focus on developing the character and spirit as the body.

南投縣永興國小和新北市大埔國小,已將古人的「武德教育」 理念融入體育課,他們如何運用老祖宗的智慧,培育允文允武的下一代?

Two schools, Nan­tou County’s Yong­xing Elementary and New Tai­pei City’s Dapu Elementary, have begun integrating these traditional concepts into their physical education classes. How exactly are they using the wisdom of the ancients, and what effect is it having on the younger generation?

已有兩百多年開發歷史的南投縣水里鎮永興村,過去是八通關古道支線的重要聚落,清朝名將吳光亮也曾在此地設立學堂。

座落在這個山明水秀村莊的永興國小,全校僅有近40名學生,個個都是拳、棍、扇、槍一應專精的「小葉問」。

Yong­xing Elementary is located in a historic part of Nan­tou, deep in the mountains in an area that in the late 19th century hosted an academy founded by renowned Qing general Wu Guang­liang. Today, the school has just around 40 students, but each and every one is earning a reputation as a “mini Ip Man” for their skill with fist, staff, fan, and spear.

習武射箭:打造小葉問及神射手

永興國小獨尊武術

The art of the martial arts

在校園地標、已有60年歷史的老欉芒果樹下,數十名孩子先右手握拳、左手伸掌,行武術敬禮,象徵以武會友;旋即虎虎生風練起「力劈」、「小虎燕」等螳螂拳法。

Beneath the six-decade-old mango tree that serves as a school landmark, a few dozen children give the characteristic wu­shu salute, right hand clasped in a fist, pressed against the palm of a left hand with the fingers extended. The salute symbolizes their respect for the martial arts and their commitment to using them in friendly competition. Moments later, the grounds are alive with students practicing moves like the “tiger–swallow routine” and “power split” from the Northern Praying Mantis style.

習武射箭:打造小葉問及神射手

這群「小葉問」的眼神專注而沈穩,眉宇間盡是英氣,一招一式迅捷、靈巧卻力道十足,完全符合「小虎燕」拳式所要求的「動如猛虎之出林、落如野燕之輕飄」之境界。

要成為現代俠士並不容易,永興國小的孩子,自小一即開始接觸武術,每周二、三、四早上皆分組練武。低年級生從太極扇入門、中年級生接觸「力劈」等外家拳;五年級生則進階至「少林三十六棍」等兵器,六年級生更挑戰難度最高的「小六合槍」。

The looks on the faces of these “mini Ip Mans” are full of focus and determination, their movements agile and powerful. But the path to becoming a modern-day master is not an easy one—these youngsters have been practicing wu­shu every Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday morning. In first and second grades they begin by practicing fan-style tai chi, moving on to more combat-oriented fighting styles in third and fourth grades. In fifth grade, the students advance to weapon styles like the Shaolin staff, and then in sixth grade, the more challenging “six harmonies spear.”

難得的是,拳打腳踢前,他們會先在川堂靜坐,並在老師引導下,閉目盤腿、調息靜心;幾個慧根獨具的孩子,更宛如老僧入定般迅速進入內視丹田、心無窒礙的禪定境界。

Even more impressive is what comes before all the sparring. The children sit still, legs crossed and eyes closed, meditating with their teacher’s guidance. Like little buddhas, the children sit on a journey into themselves, into the world of the mind and soul.

靜坐後接著是讀經時間,當「空谷傳聲、虛堂習聽、禍因惡積、福緣善慶」的《千字文》朗讀聲迴盪在校園中,一時間,讓人誤以為來到了中國大陸的少林寺。

Once their meditation is over, they move on to reading ancient texts, the words of the “Thousand-Character Classic” reverberating around the school grounds. A passerby could be forgiven for thinking they’d stumbled into mainland China’s Shaolin Temple.

練武為什麼還得配合靜坐、讀經?「沒有收歛身心的修練,練武只會讓孩子的氣質變得狂野;惟有內外兼修,才是武德教育的真諦,」曾任南投縣法藏太極拳學社理事長,現為永興國小武術指導的教務主任江宏笙說。

So why the meditation and readings for a kung fu class? “If their bodies and minds are not both in order, then all the children will learn is to be rowdy; training body and mind at once is the true essence of the martial arts,” says Yong­xing Elementary’s director of academic affairs and martial arts teacher ­Jiang Hong­sheng, who also previously chaired a tai chi association in Nantou.

武術教學結合品格教育

Building character through the martial arts

永興國小發展武術的歷史,得回溯20年前,當時具有武術及中醫背景的前任教務主任陳漢玉,嘗試在體育課上教武術;但剛開始並沒有系統性地推動教學。

The teaching of wu­shu at Yong­xing Elementary goes back some 20 years to an experiment by former academic affairs director Chen ­Hanyu, who himself had a background in wu­shu and traditional Chinese medicine. He introduced wu­shu to the PE curriculum, but in those earlier days the school’s approach was less systematic.

直至921大地震後,校園因震災而嚴重受損,學校重建期間又飽受桃芝、納莉等颱風肆虐,就連最重要的聯外交通永興吊橋都一度中斷;曾有近3年的時間,孩子們須以組合屋及社區活動中心充當臨時教室。

When the Jiji earthquake of September 1999 struck, the school was seriously damaged, and for nearly three years afterward the students had to use prefabricated classrooms and the local community activity center for their classes.

在這樣顛沛流離的景況下,永興師生反而專心致志地練起了武術。

It was in these dire circumstances that the teachers and students returned wholeheartedly to the idea of practicing the martial arts.

校長陳文源解釋,當時學校沒有上體育課的空間,而武術正是不受場地限制的運動,即使在室內也能練習,因此成為學校主力推廣的運動。

Principal Chen Wen­yuan explains that they made the choice in part because the school lacked dedicated sports facilities, and wushu can be practiced virtually anywhere.

為了開創武術的教育視野,永興國小更將習武與品格教育結合。從站樁、馬步、金雞獨立等基本功開始,培養孩子們的忍耐毅力;其後才能進階至習拳、套招、舞棍、耍槍等武術。

The school opted to take an approach that combined the martial arts with building the children’s character; basic stances like the horse and crane stances are used to train their stamina and willpower, after which they move on to more advanced training, including sparring both with and without weapons.

「對好動的小朋友來說,練武其實很枯燥,因為每一個動作都須反覆練習,招式才能到位。」江宏笙指出,練武能鍛鍊耐力、定心與專注等修為,因此練武練得好的孩子,學業成績也常名列前茅;甚至還有不少學生在畢業後仍將靜坐、練拳視為生活的一部分,日後更順利考上成大、清大等知名學府。

­Jiang notes that students who have excelled in their studies of wu­shu also tend to excel in terms of their grades, as wu­shu can train not only physical fitness, but also endurance, mental calmness, and concentration. Many of their students have gone on to test into respected colleges like National ­Cheng Kung University and National Tsing Hua University.

習武射箭:打造小葉問及神射手

大埔國小的一射成「鳴」

Dapu hits the bullseye

另一項和武術同樣強調「心之鍛造」的運動則是射箭。

在國際賽事中,射箭是我國少數具奪金實力的運動項目;新北市三峽區的大埔國小,則是台灣培育小神射手的重點學校。

Another traditional sport that similarly emphasizes mental training is archery.

Archery is one of the few sports in which Taiwan has achieved at the highest levels internationally, and Dapu ­Elementary in San­xia, New Tai­pei City, has become home to some of Taiwan’s best archers.

大埔國小的射箭隊已成立20年,起初只是為了發展學校特色,沒想到學生卻玩出興趣。其後學校向教育部爭取到訓練經費與設備,更聘請了國家級的射箭專任教練,從此一躍成為各大射箭比賽的常勝軍,也帶動全校的射箭風氣。

Dapu’s archery program has been running for 20 years. Originally it was only an attempt to give the school a distinctive selling point, but as it turned out, the students loved it. The school sought funding from the Ministry of Education to pay for training and equipment, and then hired a national-level archery coach. Since then, Dapu’s students have gone from success to success in all the major archery competitions, inspiring a passion for the sport throughout the school.

這裡的孩子自4年級起,每周都得上一堂射箭課。練習射箭前得先靜坐冥思,學習貫注注意力;再練習徒手拉弓等基本姿勢,最後才跨入瞄準、施力、放箭等正式射箭的領域。

Starting in fourth grade, students at Dapu Elementary all take one archery class a week. Before they start the class, they have to sit and meditate, learning to focus before doing stretches and practicing their stances and draws. Then, finally, they can step up to the mark, nock an arrow, and set it flying at the target.

反覆的射箭訓練,有時極為索然無味,為了激起孩子們的學習樂趣,教練郭旗顯設計了「一射成鳴」的遊戲。孩子們只要射中靶上的氣球,蜂鳴器就會響起,彷彿勝利的凱歌,讓人更勇於挑戰;今年6月的畢業典禮前,校方還特別舉辦射箭技能檢測,射中氣球的孩子,也象徵完成「神射手」的修業,相當有趣。

Archery training can sometimes get repetitive, so to keep the kids interested, coach Guo Qi­xian designed a variation for them—a balloon is tied to the target, and if a student can burst the balloon with a shot, a buzzer sounds, signaling their triumph and inspiring them to continue challenging themselves.

心無窒礙才能正中靶心

Only clear minds hit the target

大埔國小射箭教練郭旗顯指出,射箭運動是難度極高的力學挑戰,因為每一支箭的重量,均集中在金屬部位的前端,而射箭力道則由尾端貫注;當箭射出去時,前10公尺會先以左右搖擺的方式蛇行,其後才會修正為直線前進。

Guo notes that archery is a tremendous kinetic challenge—the weight of an arrow is mostly concentrated at its metallic tip, while the power that propels the arrow is concentrated at the other end. When an arrow is loosed, it tends to wobble for the first 10 meters before finally straightening up.

每一次射箭時,選手都須先在腦中進行靶心位置、用力方向、瞄準角度等力學計算,再依序拉弓出箭;而正式比賽通常採一對一的對決,就算是團體賽,隊友也無法分擔個人出賽時的緊張情緒,因此惟有思路縝密又具抗壓力的選手,才能獲得最後勝利。

Whenever an archer prepares to shoot, they have to go through all kinds of physics calculations in their head even before they draw the bow. On top of that, archery is usually a one-on-one competition, so neither competitor can afford to let nerves get in the way. Only the competitors with the clearest minds and who handle pressure the best will stand a chance at victory.

郭旗顯說,射箭表現佳的孩子,往往具備冷靜、沉穩、內斂等人格特質,足以應付臨場對決的壓力;而容易浮躁及活動力旺盛的孩子,則可藉由反覆的射箭訓練,學習控制情緒與凝聚專注力。

Guo notes that the children who do best at archery tend to be cool, calm, and collected by nature, because they’re the ones best able to handle the pressure of competition. Children who are easily distracted or overactive, meanwhile, often learn to control their emotions and focus better through the repetition of archery training.

武術及射箭運動,都強調身心合一的品格修為,對學齡兒童來說,趣味性雖然有限,卻學到了一生受用無窮的處事態度。

Both wu­shu and archery alike place as much emphasis on mental training as on physical training. While young children may find both occasionally boring, ultimately these sports provide them with resources that will last them a lifetime.

看更多精彩內容詳見本期的臺灣光華雜誌

  • 臺灣光華雜誌 2013-10-30
關鍵字: 射箭武術孩子國小永興
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