中時電子報 書刊

優質豐富的新聞媒體

如果李白有臉書樂善國小陳維士

陳維士與學生用創意,讓李白穿越時空,感受臉書魅力。 Chen Weishi has gotten his students interested in the classical poet Li Bai by asking them to draw up (on paper) modern Facebook pages for him.
陳維士與學生用創意,讓李白穿越時空,感受臉書魅力。 Chen Weishi has gotten his students interested in the classical poet Li Bai by asking them to draw up (on paper) modern Facebook pages for him.

「朝辭白帝彩雲間,千里江陵一日還。」老師在黑板上寫下詩人李白的經典詩句,正在解釋詩中意境時,台下的小學生便舉手發問了:「為什麼要寫詩啊?唐朝的人很閒嗎?」當場讓老師傻眼。

The teacher is writing a classic verse by the Tang-Dynasty poet Li Bai on the blackboard. As he explains the inner meaning of the poem, a student suddenly blurts out: “Why did they write poetry? Were they so bored they had nothing else to do?” The teacher is at a loss for an answer.

唐詩、宋詞、元曲都是中華文化的傳統經典,更是中文藝術的精華,然而距今千年以上的時空差異,讓習慣了網路、手機、平板電腦的小學生難以理解,也提不起興趣。為了提高學生的學習動機,桃園市樂善國小的陳維士老師,竟然讓李白復生,跟現代人一起玩臉書、拍照打卡樣樣來,原本興趣缺缺的學生,態度也一百八十度大轉變,到底其中有何樂趣?

Tang and Song poetry form part of the essential canon of ancient Chinese culture that has stood the test of time. But today, a thousand or more years after the fact, students whose time is occupied with the Internet, smartphones, and tablet computers find it hard to take an interest. But one teacher—Chen Weishi of Le Shan Elementary School in Taoyuan—came up with a novel idea to motivate students. How did he do it? He gave Li Bai his own Facebook page! Students who had once been uninterested changed their attitude 180 degrees.

點開李白的臉書,動態時報上寫著:「和好友一起喝酒聊天真是太開心啦!和孟浩然─1小時前」杜甫立刻按了讚,並留言,「喝酒竟然沒找我,真不夠意思!」

Check out this “Facebook” page for Li Bai. It says under recent activities: “Chatting and imbibing with good friends, what a great time! With Meng Haoran. One hour ago.” The post is “liked” by Du Fu, who nonetheless quips: “Drinking without me? You guys are no fun!”

左半邊的基本資料欄看了更驚人,出生年代是西元701年,工作經驗是唐朝翰林學士,目前則是專職詩人,好友包含杜甫、孟浩然、吳指南等,就和現代的臉書使用者沒兩樣。

In the column on the left hand side for basic biographical information is the astonishing fact that Li Bai was born in the year 701. Under work experience it says “member of the Hanlin Academy of the Tang Dynasty,” and his current employment is listed as “professional poet.” Friends include Du Fu, Meng Haoran, Wu Zhinan, and many more. Here you will find everything that is on the page of a modern Facebook user.

仿效詩人的「真率會」,讓學生實際體會古人生活,活用詩詞。(陳維士提供) Poetry activities modeled after the gatherings of the literati of old—which were fueled by wit, wisdom, and wine—allow modern students to experience first-hand how the ancients actually had fun with verse. But have no fear: in the classroom, tea substitutes for wine. (courtesy of Chen Weishi)
仿效詩人的「真率會」,讓學生實際體會古人生活,活用詩詞。(陳維士提供) Poetry activities modeled after the gatherings of the literati of old—which were fueled by wit, wisdom, and wine—allow modern students to experience first-hand how the ancients actually had fun with verse. But have no fear: in the classroom, tea substitutes for wine. (courtesy of Chen Weishi)

李白當然不可能上演穿越劇,玩起臉書,這些其實都是樂善國小5年級小朋友的作業,起因全來自學生的一句發問:「詩人都沒事做嗎?為什麼要一直寫詩?」而引發老師陳維士的一番創意。

Obviously Li Bai has not travelled through time just to get on social media. This and other imaginary Li Bai Facebook pages are in fact the work of fifth-graders at Le Shan Elementary School. It all started with a student’s simple question: “Didn’t poets have anything better to do? Why were they always writing poetry?” It was a question that gave their teacher, Chen Weishi, a brilliant idea.

和李白有約四部曲Li Bai: Liked!

「你們現在吃飯、出去玩也是在發臉書動態,唐朝又沒有臉書,他們只好用自己的方式來記錄生活。」陳維士老師一邊說明,一邊拿出他準備好的臉書表格,「想像一下,如果李白有臉書的話,他會怎麼玩?」陳維士話說完,學生們一開始還瞪大眼睛不知道該如何動筆,但沒過多久就進入狀況,一張張李白的臉書陸續出現,課堂上也充斥著歡笑聲。

A few days later, Chen came back to the student with an answer: “All the stuff in your lives, like the meals you eat or where you go for fun, you update your status on Facebook. But people in the Tang Dynasty didn’t have social media, so they used their own ways to make a record of what they were doing.” While Chen was giving his answer, he handed out paper templates of a Facebook page that he had prepared and said, “Let’s imagine for a second, what would Li Bai have done if he had had Facebook?” When Chen finished, the students at first were agog, and didn’t know how to begin. But it wasn’t long before they started getting into it, and they began producing their own Facebook pages for Li Bai. It’s not often you see students actually laughing with joy as they do their schoolwork.

教學中加進趣味,誘發學生動力,讓學生更能專注學習。 By finding ways to making learning more interesting and more fun, teachers can motivate children to concentrate on their studies.
教學中加進趣味,誘發學生動力,讓學生更能專注學習。 By finding ways to making learning more interesting and more fun, teachers can motivate children to concentrate on their studies.

同樣一句話,換個方式說,效果卻會大不同。經過李白臉書的活動後,學生已習慣這種教學方式,因此陳維士繼續推出後續的課程,包括模仿古人寫作唐詩、自己動手製作立體書,以及最後的作文題「和李白有約」,學生參與度超高,讓陳維士也吃驚。

Students enjoyed this approach so much that Chen continued using it with follow-up classwork, including writing poetry in the Tang-Dynasty style, or having the students make their own pop-up books. For the final paper, “A Meeting with Li Bai,” student participation was extremely enthusiastic, surprising even Chen himself.

陳維士說,用臉書教學的創意其實是他無意間看到有個國中老師,在教台灣歷史時,利用臉書的方式,製作鄭成功、沈葆楨等人物,陳維士便隨手記下了這個點子。恰好這學期的國語課教到唐詩,他發現李白的〈早發白帝城〉,有時間、地點、也有抒情兼寫景,剛好吻合臉書打卡拍照、寫下心情動態的模式,於是就設計了這一整套和李白有約的課程。

和李白有約四部曲結束後,陳維士又舉辦了一場效法白居易、司馬光的「真率會」,在會上詩人們吟詩作對、把酒言歡,去除繁文縟節和鋪張浪費,強調「簡樸真率」故而得名。

Chen also organized a poetry session in the style of Bai Juyi and Sima Guang. These literati of old would meet in what today we might call a “poetry slam,” trading off to create lines, with each attempting to top the other. If someone came up with something especially brilliant, they would be rewarded with a cup of wine. They referred to these events with the word zhenshuai, which roughly means “keeping it real,” as the verse-makers emphasized simplicity and straightforwardness, stripping their poetry of esoteric embellishments and unnecessary extravagance.

樂善國小以飲茶代替飲酒,學生們輪流上台,朗讀自己之前仿作的唐詩,經由校長評判,如果作得好的,便可獲得一杯茶飲。害羞不敢上台吟詩的學生,則玩起角色扮演,有人在旁搧風、遞茶水、當衛兵,也能自得其樂。

For the event at Le Shan Elementary, the students took turns going on stage and reciting Tang-style poetry that they had previously composed. With the school principal serving as judge, if the poem was deemed good enough the student would get a cup of tea, served in lieu of wine.

會上還玩起「水中撈月」(在小型球池中找出黃色的月亮球)、「貴妃捧硯」(捧著粉筆盒伺候上台寫字的人)等跟李白有關的典故,親身體驗後,學生自然印象深刻。「不管考試會不會考,這些東西學生一輩子都不會忘記。」陳維士說,接下來課程進入古文明,他透露將會仿效電影《古墓奇兵》的方式,設計尋寶遊戲,讓學生實際體驗金字塔、兵馬俑,並感受古代帝王的權威與神秘。

由於課程活潑有趣,學習效果又好,經媒體報導後,讓臉書上的李白紅了好一陣子,許多外校的老師,也紛紛效法這種創意教學方式,陳維士說:「其他老師做得比我更精緻、玩得更棒,我非常樂見自己的創意能分享出去。」

After the poetry readings, there were also games with themes associated with Li Bai, such as “dredging the moon out of the water” (getting a yellow “moon ball” out of a small pool of water) and “the imperial consort holds the inkstone” (someone acts as a servant holding the box of chalk for a person writing on the blackboard). This kind of participatory learning made a huge impact on the students. “No matter whether these things come up in the exams, the students will remember them for the rest of their lives,” says Chen.

學習的關鍵:生活體驗Connecting study with play

隨著教師社群與聯繫網路日益發達,臉書題材在教育領域中愈來愈常見,今年大學學力測驗才出現李白低頭滑手機的插畫考題,最近又有一位成功高中的歷史教師,在段考考卷中用臉書出題,顯見許多教師同樣體悟,要讓學生了解過去,必須要從現在的生活經驗著手。

許多事情在課堂上很困難,放到生活中卻變得很簡單,陳維士舉例:有一位學生,數學成績不太好,百位數的加減常常還會算錯。

Chen Weishi’s pedagogical approach has been extended beyond literature. In fact, a lot of things that leave students stumped when posed as dry academic questions become much easier when combined with activities they can identify with. Chen offers one example about a student whose mathematics grades were never very good, and who had particular difficulty adding or subtracting three-digit numbers.

但是有一天他發現這名學生跟同學在玩卡牌遊戲時,計算戰鬥力卻一清二楚,「我這張牌攻擊力2,500,加上這個魔法會變2倍,所以是5,000,比你多800,這回合你輸啦。」聽著學生清楚的說明他的計算過程,陳維士心想,百位數的計算都會算錯的孩子,怎麼玩遊戲時連千位數的乘法都會了?於是他展開更龐大的計畫,運用現在正熱門的遊戲──密室逃脫,將學科知識融入其中。

One day Chen spotted this student playing a role-playing card game with some of his classmates, and the boy had no problem whatsoever doing the calculations for their combats. “Okay, the attack power on this card is 2500, and if I play this magic card as well, that doubles the power, so it’s 5000. That gives me 800 more than you. You lose!” Listening to the student explain his calculation process so lucidly, Chen wondered how someone who had difficulty handling three-digit numbers could so readily double a four-digit number in his head. Chen was inspired to create his own “locked room escape games” (a recreational activity currently popular among young people in Taiwan) as a means to test kids on classroom material.

陳維士把教室設計成一個密室,學生輪流進入挑戰,解開所有謎題之後,才能獲得鑰匙逃出。

Chen turns the classroom into a locked room, and the students take turns going into the room where they try to solve riddles and answer questions that provide clues on how to find the key to get out.

只見題目卡上,一長串的外星文字,原來是對應到注音符號,仔細比對解碼才能看懂真正的問題。問題包含了成語接龍、英文單字、找地圖等,每過一關才能獲得一個數字,這些數字組合起來,對應到教室後方的置物櫃號碼,裡面就藏有能夠成功脫逃的鑰匙。

這場遊戲結合國語、數學、英文、自然、社會五科的基礎學科能力,同時也考驗學生的反應力和解決問題的能力,有些孩子玩到一半會鬧脾氣,大喊著不要玩了;有些則向老師撒嬌求救,希望能獲得提示。

「慢慢想,再多想一下,沒有這麼困難。」陳維士則用和緩又帶有威嚴的語氣,鼓勵學生解題。

其實現場不只學生,還有一堆學生家長,也正費盡心思地解題。原來這場活動,是這學期的「親職日」,陳維士邀請到校的家長們與孩子一起闖關,一方面了解孩子在學校學到的東西,同時也培養出革命情感,拉近親子距離。

On the day we visited Chen’s class, the cards with the questions on them looked like they were written in some alien script. It turned out the odd marks corresponded to the phonetic symbols that are used in Taiwan for teaching children Mandarin pronunciation. Students had to decode the “alien” marks to find out the real questions, which included idiomatic expressions, English vocabulary words, and locating places on a map. With each correct answer, the student got a number, and by combining these numbers they could figure out which storage locker in the back of the classroom was the one where the escape key was hidden.

在教室之外,更重要的東西Beyond the classroom

將屆不惑之年的陳維士,對教育有著豐富的想像。

Having reached the age of 40, which in Confucian terms is an age of self-confidence and self-knowledge, Chen has an abundance of imaginative ideas about education.

「很多學生上了國中之後,就容易走歪,因為缺乏穩固的根基。」陳維士說,小學老師還能夠用權威,讓孩子不會過於偏差,但這不是根本之道。「擁有健康的生活環境與學習心態,才是關鍵。」

“Middle school is where a lot of students begin to go astray, because they lack a stable foundation.” Chen says that whereas primary school teachers can rely simply on authority to keep children from getting too far out of line, this is not a long-term solution. “The real key is that students have a healthy environment for their daily lives and a proper mindset about learning.”

中原大學機械系畢業的陳維士,在學校參加服務性社團、帶營隊的過程中,發現自己很喜歡與孩子相處,同時也自覺對小孩頗有一套,因而進修教育學程,取得教師資格。

Chen did not in fact start out to be a teacher. At Chung Yuan Christian University he majored in mechanical engineering. But one time he joined a team doing voluntary service at a camp for children, and discovered he had a real knack for getting along with kids. So he took some electives in education, and got his credentials to become a professional teacher.

經過多年的教育現場觀察,他發現不少家長把孩子交給學校之後,就撒手不管了,甚至有時候老師主動連絡家長都找不到人,讓他感嘆:「真正的怪獸家長不會來學校咆嘯,而是避不見面。此類家庭裡的孩子,最容易走歪。」

In his mind, parents are the key to education. After many years of observing students first-hand, he has discovered that many parents simply dump their kids off on the school and pay them no attention after that. Sometimes, he says, teachers who want to talk to a student’s parents can’t even find them. “The real ‘monster parents’ aren’t the ones who come to the school being pushy and shouting, they are the ones who never even show up. Children who grow up in those households are much more likely to go astray.”

他認為教育不是看成績或分數可以決定,而是一個更長遠的過程。「今天坐在這個教室裡,你覺得大家都一樣,6年以後卻可能分散在台灣各處、念著不同科系、或是在工作。」陳維士在課堂上常對孩子這樣說,「別以為你和你旁邊的同學永遠都一樣。」目的就是讓孩子維持學習的動機。

而要能讓孩子在學習的路上走更遠,家長的態度是關鍵。陳維士除了挨家挨戶到每位學生家裡拜訪之外,學期末,他還出了一張「給家長的考卷」,題目不難,包括孩子今年幾歲、就讀幾年幾班、老師叫什麼名字;比較困難的則是寫出一個孩子今年在數學課學習的單元名稱,以及孩子在班上最好的朋友的名字。

For children to succeed at learning and keep advancing through the educational system, the attitude of the parents is critical. Chen not only personally visits the home of each and every student, at the end of each semester he sends out an “exam paper for parents.” Most of the questions look easy enough, such as what is the age of the child, what year is he or she in school, what is his or her homeroom, what is the name of his or her teacher, and the like. However there are also some that are somewhat more difficult, such as identifying the units the child has studied in mathematics, or the names of his or her best friends at school.

「我本來是希望孩子自己出題讓家長作答,但是他們都不敢,怕被家長罵,只好由我來出題。」陳維士笑說,發考卷時,自己也滿擔心家長會不願配合,班上不少學生也認為父母會拒考,還有人說「一定會挨罵」。

“My original idea was that the children should come up with their own questions for the parents to answer, but most children didn’t dare to do that. They were afraid their parents would feel put out or angry. So in the end I had to come up with the questions myself,” laughs Chen. When he drew up his first “exam paper,” he was a little worried himself that few parents would cooperate. Many of his students also assumed that their parents would refuse to take the test, and some even said they would definitely get yelled at.

樂善國小的特色是獨輪車,陳維士將這份活動擴大為畢業三鐵大賽,完賽學生才能順利畢業。 Unicycles are one of the more unusual features of Le Shan Elementary School. Chen Weishi has incorporated this activity into a “triathlon” which students must complete in order to graduate.
樂善國小的特色是獨輪車,陳維士將這份活動擴大為畢業三鐵大賽,完賽學生才能順利畢業。 Unicycles are one of the more unusual features of Le Shan Elementary School. Chen Weishi has incorporated this activity into a “triathlon” which students must complete in order to graduate.

沒想到成效出奇地好,不但大多數家長都配合作答,成績也都很好,「我想應該有很多題是小孩子偷偷給答案的吧!」陳維士笑說。

But the results far exceeded Chen’s hopes. Not only did the great majority of parents cooperate in answering the questions, they even got quite good “grades.” Chen says with a smile, “I have to think that the kids gave the parents the answers for quite a few of the questions!”

當然,分數並不是重點,這份考卷的意義在於,讓家長有機會進一步了解孩子,甚至讓平常不太跟孩子聊天的家長,有一個開口的機會。從學生的角度來看,會覺得這些題目應該很簡單,但如果家長答不出來,難免也有些心酸,畢竟這些都是與孩子切身相關的基本常識。許多家長也因此親自到學校跟陳維士道謝,因為這份考卷,讓他們發現自己不知不覺間,已經跟孩子漸行漸遠了。

It goes without saying that the grades are not the important part. The purpose of these exams is for parents to get the opportunity to learn more about their own children, and especially to give parents who rarely chat with their kids a reason to sit down and talk. From the point of view of the students, the questions look very simple and obvious, but if the parents don’t know the answers, it’s very likely the child will feel hurt. After all, the questions involve the most basic common knowledge about the child and his or her life. This is why many parents have come to the school to thank Chen in person, because the test has made them realize that, quite unwittingly, they had been growing apart from their children.

台灣光華雜誌 201506期。
台灣光華雜誌 201506期。

用創意玩教育,從教室裡玩到教室外,從學校到家裡,陳維士相信只要持續付出熱情,就能在孩子眼裡看見火花。

Bringing a playful sense of creativity to education, both at school and in the home, Chen is confident that as long as he keeps enthusiastically promoting his ideas, he will see sparks in the eyes of the children.

看更多精彩內容詳見本期的臺灣光華雜誌

  • 臺灣光華雜誌 2015-06-16
關鍵字: 學生孩子臉書李白家長
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